This is the question that brings us back to the basic level of apologetics. We must get started with the basics as we begin. You can't run, until you learn how to walk first. Apologetics isn't just about answering those difficult questions that take years of studying to answer. Apologetics is about answering the fundamental ones as well. In fact, the basic questions you will encounter from others will be the most important to have an answer for. The foundation of our belief is stemmed from this question: Is God real? If we can prove this, we can lead souls to salvation. If we can convince somebody that God exists, you at least have that person now heading down the right path. Your job is to either plant a seed or to water a seed previously planted. Remember, God is the one who gives the increase to those seeds. So if you are speaking with someone and they don't immediately repent and believe in Jesus, pray for them! Pray that God works on their heart and the words you have sown into their minds obtain growth. Pray for their salvation. Let God do His job, so focus on doing yours. Remember, we can't even save ourselves, let alone someone else. Jesus saves. If someone appears cold and non-caring when you preach the Gospel to them, according to the Bible God's word cuts to the very heart (Hebrews 4:12). You can't see into a man's heart, so you don't know how they are truly feeling. Many of the arguments we will learn in this lesson will be very simplistic. Very often, common sense things. Theses will be things that everyone already knows. But we are going to piece them together in a way to demonstrate that God does in fact exist.
The study of the universe. We will be arguing the existence of God by using the universe.
We are mainly focusing on the fact that the Universe has a cause. Basic science explains that for every effect, there must be a cause behind it. Meaning everything we see in existence today are effects stemmed from previous causes. If you follow the paper trail all the way back to the beginning, we will find out what the first cause was that created existence as we know it. Something cause the universe to come into existence. We argue that the first cause was God.
Here are 3 reasons why everything must have a cause.
Metaphysical Intuition: The law of Causality demands a cause for any event.
This takes us back to the simple law of logic. Refer to the picture above for example. Even though the nails don't understand what exactly happened to their friend, they know that there was a cause behind their friend disappearing. For any event, there has to be a cause. Simple. Things just don't "happen".
Absence of the Contrary: Elephants, wrenches, and buildings don't magically pop into existence.
We never see this happening, nor is there any proof of this ever happening. If something were to come into existence without a cause, than we would be constantly worrying about random items manifesting in the middle of nowhere on a daily basis. I don't leave my house in fear that a donkey is going to appear out of thin air in my kitchen to eat my food.
Personal Experience: No one can name anything that began to exist without a cause.
Everything had something that caused it.
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This seems like common sense, right? However, not so much in today's age. Many people believe that the big bang caused the universe to exist. The only issue is, according to the scientific law of Cause & Effect, something must have caused the big bang to happen. If molecules popping in and out of existence caused the big bang, than something must have caused the molecules to pop in and out of existence. If a force caused the molecules to pop in and out of existence, something must have caused the force to create that energy. The rabbit hole is endless, and will never lead you to an answer. This is why all things must come from something. Nothing just happens. This formal statement of the Law of Causality has been understood and accepted for at least 2,300 years. The earliest known philosopher to have understood this Law might have been Aristotle. The question of, "What came first? the chicken or the egg?", should really be "what caused the chicken and the egg to exist?" They both had to come from something. Same thing with our universe. Big Bang theory is not a logical theory to build your beliefs on.
The contrary of the law of causality would be things coming into being out of nothing. Yet, this never happens. No one is going to worry about something randomly appearing anywhere without a reason. If the Law of Causality were not true, this would be happening all of the time. We would be seeing objects, creatures, and other physical things coming into existence out of thin air consistently on a day-to-day basis.
" Why don't bicycles and Beethoven and root beer come into being out of nothing? Why is it only universes that can pop into being from nothing? What makes 'nothingness' so discriminatory? There can't be anything about nothing that favors universes. 'Nothingness' doesn't have any properties, nor can it constrain 'nothing' since there isn't anything to be constrained about nothing."
- William Lane Craig
There was nothing, and there was something. There has to be something that caused that transition from nothingness for things to begin existence.
It definitely makes you think. If the universe came into existence from nothingness, why a universe? What allowed 'nothing' to one day spit an entire universe from thin air? It's as if nothing had intelligence to create Laws, morals to create right, wrongs, and absolute truths, and a personal will to even decide to create life. Oh wait! That's right. God has those qualities and abilities. 'Nothing' however has no will, no motivation, no reason, no intelligence, no order, no structure, no absolutes, no rights, no wrongs, no happiness, no guilt, no.. nothing. It makes zero sense how Laws of existence such as gravity, thermodynamics, physics, etc. can be created from 'nothingness', because 'nothingness' has no ability to even create. It takes a mind and will to create anything. This is why Big Bang theory collapses in on itself. Even simple science proves this theory is both illogical and improbable.
A man and his wife are laying in bed together. All of a sudden, they hear a loud crash in the living room downstairs. Terrified, the husband investigates the room where he heard the noise come from. He spent minutes looking around to figure out what that noise was, or what cause that noise. He finds nothing out of the ordinary. Nothing has changed, and everything is exactly the way it was before he went to bed. Confused, he goes back to his wife and asks her "Honey, what was that noise?" She calmly asks him "What noise?" Shocked, he quickly responds "The loud crash downstairs that woke us both up. You're telling me you didn't hear it?" She again tells him "Well, that could have been just a loud noise." The husband says "Well I know it was loud noise! Why did it happen though? Someone could be in here, or maybe an animal got into the house somehow. A noise just doesn't happen honey." She laughs and tells him "Things like that happen all the time, don't worry dear."
It's safe to assume she is either insane, ignorant, selectively deaf, joking, or that she is hiding something. Things don't just happen for no reason. Our personal experience confirms this. No one can name anything that began to exist without a cause. Both personal and scientific experience confirm that anything that begins to exist has a cause. Anyone devoted to modern science (especially materialism) could not claim that the opposite is more reasonable. To deny this would require the same substance that atheists mock us Christians for having: Faith.
When it comes to people who do not believe in God, it is common that they take on either scientism or materialism. Remember these two worldviews from lesson 1? Materialism is the worldview that only the material world exists, and Scientism is the worldview that we can only believe what science proves. Many atheists claim that we can only prove what we can see, study, touch, or experiment with. Yet, with the same breath they will also claim the Big Bang theory as a fact. The Big Bang theory is a theory which cannot be proven today, and the supposed Big Bang came from an IMMATERIAL nothingness. Atheists will pick and choose when their worldviews are right, and will often steal from our Christian worldview to appeal to and better suit their own. People who believe that the universe came from nothing will be taking a step in Blind Faith. Their god's names being either Science or Evolution.
We may disagree about how and why.
But we agree that it happened.
If it Is true that the universe came into existence in the exact manner that the big bang theory proposes, it is only evidence for God. That means that the universe began to exist, which means that there has to be cause to that.
Big Bang Theory
Effect --> Cause --> Effect
Remember, there MUST be a cause for every effect, so the equation above is incorrect because there cannot be an effect without a cause. If everything must have a beginning, the only cause that could logically be able to begin this equation would need to be a first cause that does not need any prior cause. We would need a cause that always existed and is self-sustained. This is essentially stating that everything must have come from something that always was, as opposed to everything coming from nothing that never was. This cause must be something eternal. Since God is everlasting (has no beginning, nor an ending), this is why God is the perfect candidate to be the first and only un-caused causation.
God (Uncaused-Cause) --> Effect --> Cause --> Effect
This equation is correct because even though it is an un-caused causation, it is still a cause nevertheless. Thus, allowing the effect to logically follow. In this case, the effect is the universe, the cause is God. With an un-caused cause as the first cause, we now have an answer to where everything came from.
The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: Any closed system is running out of energy. This is also known as the Law of Entropy. The energy is going from a state of order to a state of disorder. The energy is being used up, and is not infinite.
The best example of this can be a hot cup of coffee kept on a table. The coffee will eventually cool down showing that heat only flows from high temperature to low temperature without the aid of any external agent. This means that it had a finite amount of energy in the start and, therefore, a beginning. Just like the coffee, the universe is constantly running out of energy. It cannot keep going if you are not putting any energy into it. If the universe is running down, at some point it is going to run out. This means prior to that, it had a set amount of energy. If it was just infinite years back with no beginning, energy would also be infinite. The universe began to exist at some point.
So far we have our 2 premises that are true. Our first premise stating that the universe, or anything that begins to exist, has a cause. Our second premise stating that the universe began to exist. These 2 premises alone does not quite put everything together just yet. All that these premises tell us is that the universe had a cause.
Because all time, space, and matter came into existence in the beginning of the universe, the Cause must be eternal, space-less, and immaterial. This Cause must be outside of these three things, and cannot be bound by them. There are only two things that can be timeless, space-less, and immaterial: an abstract concept (such as the number 5, which cannot cause anything ) or a disembodied Consciousness (a Being that is not a physical Being ). This Being must be able to transcend all of time, space, and matter. Therefore, the First Cause is eternal, space-less, immaterial, and personal.
Lets go back and read the first verse of the Bible.
The Cause that created the universe must be outside of time, space, and matter and must also be personal. This is exactly what the Bible tells us from the very first sentence of Genesis. Genesis 1:1 is spot on with everything we know about the universe, and was written there for thousands of years before scientists could even figure out that space even existed.
This argument is not claiming we don't know and, therefore, God did it.
Example: "I don't understand what caused this. Therefore, due to my limited understanding, this is evidence proving that it must be God who did it."
We aren't claiming "I don't know, therefore God__", but rather we are claiming that scientific findings, laws of logic, common sense, and personal experience demonstrate that the universe had a cause that is most likely God.
This question misunderstands what is meant by "God." It ultimately leads to an unnecessary infinite regress. If we were to answer this question with "another God", than we could then safely ask "okay then, who made THAT God that made God?" The chain would be a never ending chain of Gods creating Gods. The True Living God that we worship is the uncaused first Cause. If God were to be created by someone, than He wouldn't be God would He?
There are two options:
This is not possible as "nature" began to exist with the first point of the universe. They will agree that there was a first cause, but deny that the first cause was God. They believe that the first cause was something non-intelligent. This is essentially a claim that nature created itself. Nothing can create itself, as nothing pre-exists itself.
Example: "Give me enough time, and I can eventually prove to you that I gave birth to my own grandmother."
It doesn't matter how long you have to figure it out, this is something that you will never be able to prove. Why? Because it's impossible, just like this objection.
Thou, [even] thou, [art] LORD alone; thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth, and all [things] that [are] therein, the seas, and all that [is] therein, and thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth thee.
One of the best arguments for God's existence is just by opening your eyes. Watch the way a flower blooms. The way an eagle flies in the air. The way an animal's coat has been beautifully painted with unique arrays of stripes or spots. The way the ecosystem is so perfectly structured from the top down, that if the bumble bee were to go extinct, everything would collapse in on itself. The way the skies at night declare God's Glory in their beautiful brightness. The way a spider can build her home from seemingly nothing but her abdomen. The way the each bird has it's own voice, and together they sing an ensemble of praises to the Lord. The fact is, we know God is real by just seeing his work. You're going to tell me that an explosion created these beautiful creatures? Created their environments? Created the beautiful colors that we see? Created order? Created life from non-life? Think about it. The answer is right before your eyes. So again, God is real and we all know He exists. It's just a matter of our willingness to accept him and turn from our own wicked ways. That is the core of their unbelief. I would like you to read the following chapters to get an idea to see the perfection of God's creation from His point of view. Godless you all in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and click "lesson3" to proceed further.